Authors: Scott SA, Scott ER, Seki Y, Chen AJ, Wallsten R, Owusu Obeng A, Botton MR, Cody N, Shi H, Zhao G, Brake P, Nicoletti P, Yang Y, Delio M, Shi L, Kornreich R, Schadt EE, Edelmann L.
To develop a novel pharmacogenetic genotyping panel, a multidisciplinary team evaluated available evidence and selected 29 genes implicated in interindividual drug response variability, including 130 sequence variants and additional copy number variants (CNVs). Of the 29 genes, 11 had guidelines published by the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium. Targeted genotyping and CNV interrogation were accomplished by multiplex single-base extension using the MassARRAY platform (Agena Biosciences) and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MRC Holland), respectively. Analytical validation of the panel was accomplished by a strategic combination of > 500 independent tests performed on 170 unique reference material DNA samples, which included sequence variant and CNV accuracy, reproducibility, and specimen (blood, saliva, and buccal swab) controls. Among the accuracy controls were 32 samples from the 1000 Genomes Project that were selected based on their enrichment of sequence variants included in the pharmacogenetic panel (VarCover.org). Coupled with publicly available samples from the Genetic Testing Reference Materials Coordination Program (GeT-RM), accuracy validation material was available for the majority (77%) of interrogated sequence variants (100% with average allele frequencies > 0.1%), as well as additional structural alleles with unique copy number signatures (e.g., CYP2D6*5, *13, *36, *68; CYP2B6*29; and CYP2C19*36). Accuracy and reproducibility for both genotyping and copy number were > 99.9%, indicating that the optimized panel platforms were precise and robust. Importantly, multi-ethnic allele frequencies of the interrogated variants indicate that the vast majority of the general population carries at least one of these clinically relevant pharmacogenetic variants, supporting the implementation of this panel for pharmacogenetic research and/or clinical implementation programs.
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