February 2022
A comprehensive digital phenotype for postpartum hemorrhage
Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association

Authors: Zheutlin AB, Vieira L, Shewcraft RA, Li S, Wang Z, Schadt E, Kao Y, Gross S, Dolan SM, Stone J, Schadt E, Li L

Objective: We aimed to establish a comprehensive digital phenotype for postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). Current guidelines rely primarily on estimates of blood loss, which can be inaccurate and biased and ignore complementary information readily available in electronic medical records (EMR). Inaccurate and incomplete phenotyping contributes to ongoing challenges in tracking PPH outcomes, developing more accurate risk assessments, and identifying novel interventions.

Materials and Methods: We constructed a cohort of 71 944 deliveries from the Mount Sinai Health System. Estimates of postpartum blood loss, shifts in hematocrit, administration of uterotonics, surgical interventions, and diagnostic codes were combined to identify PPH, retrospectively. Clinical features were extracted from EMRs and mapped to common data models for maximum interoperability across hospitals. Blinded chart review was done by a physician on a subset of PPH and non-PPH patients and performance was compared to alternate PPH phenotypes. PPH was defined as clinical diagnosis of postpartum hemorrhage documented in the patient’s chart upon chart review.

Results: We identified 6639 PPH deliveries (9% prevalence) using our phenotype—more than 3 times as many as using blood loss alone (N = 1,747), supporting the need to incorporate other diagnostic and intervention data. Chart review revealed our phenotype had 89% accuracy and an F1-score of 0.92. Alternate phenotypes were less accurate, including a common blood loss-based definition (67%) and a previously published digital phenotype (74%).

Conclusions: We have developed a scalable, accurate, and valid digital phenotype that may be of significant use for tracking outcomes and ongoing clinical research to deliver better preventative interventions for PPH.

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